blogger

Blogger.com or WordPress: How They Compare

This article was written by Richard Robbins. 

Bloggers:  Should You Use Blogger.com or WordPress?

Blogger.com (also known as Blogspot) and WordPress are the two most commonly used blogging platforms today.  Blogger.com was a pioneer in the blogging industry, allowing users to set up accounts and blog for free beginning in 1999.  Blogger.com was purchased by Google in 2003, which enabled it to grow using Google’s resources.  Today, Blogger.com has an undisclosed number of millions of users blogging on their system.

 

 WordPress began in 2003 as the successor to another (now relatively unknown) blogging system.  It has since become the blog platform of choice for most blogging professionals.  There are currently over two million people who are active users of WordPress.com, and there are millions of others who have downloaded various versions of the WordPress code.

 

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Adobe Photoshop Tutorial: Magic Wand Tool

The Magic Wand Tool allows you to select areas with consistent colors without tracing the outside of the area. Rather, you can control the amount of color variance allowed in the selection by adjusting the Tolerance of the Magic Wand.  This, along with other options is available in the Magic Wand menu bar.  Here are the options in order as they appear in the menu.

 Magic Wand Tool

Using Magic Wand
This image shows the Magic Wand being used to select the blue jersey.

There are four options for the type of selection you can choose.  The default option is New Selection.  This allows you to select a new area with the Magic Wand.  If you need to deselect a portion of the selected area, choose Subtract from Selection and draw around the area you want deselected.  Likewise, Add to Selection increases the selected area.  You can also add to your selection by pressing shift while selecting regardless of which option you have active.  Intersect with Selection allows you to draw two areas and the overlapping portion will be the selection area.  You can continue to draw as many overlapping shapes as you would like until you have the correct area selected.

 Selection Options

The next option is Tolerance.  This adjusts the color variance that will be added to the selection when clicking on an area.  A lower value selects colors more similar in color to the pixels clicked on; a higher number allows a broader range of colors.  Anti-alias smoothes the edges of the selection.  If selected, contiguous only allows the Magic Wand to select similar colors that are touching the area selected.  If not selected, similar colors in the Tolerance range will be selected anywhere in the image.  Sample All Layers allows you to select from all layers rather than just the currently selected layer.

 Magic Wand Menu

For more control over the edge of your selection, click on the Refine Edge button.  The Refine Edge button allows you to refine your selection and view your selection against a neutral background so you can more clearly see how your selection will look.  Select a portion of your image, and then click on this button.  By default when you choose this, everything outside of your selection will appear white so you can more clearly see what you have selected.  You can then use the sliders to adjust the selection area.  Make sure Preview is checked so you can see the results of your changes.

 Refine Edge

Radius controls the size of the area inside the selection boundary where the edge refinement occurs.  The higher the number the more contracted from the original selection area.  Contrast sharpens the edges of the selection.  The higher the Contrast number the more defined the edges will be.  Smooth controls irregularities in the selection boundary.  The higher the number, the more smoothed out the selection boundary will be.  Feathering the selection will create a faded transition from the selected area to the area outside the selection.  The higher the number, the larger the feathered area up to 250 pixels.  Contract/Expand enlarges or minimizes the selection boundary.  Positive numbers expand and negative numbers contract.  This tool in conjunction with others can help fix problems in your selection boundary.  For example, if some of the background is still visible around the edge of your selection, contract the boundary.  Below the sliders are five options that allow you to adjust how your selection is previewed with descriptions below that describe each option.

Adobe Photoshop Tutorial: Quick Selection Tool

The Quick Selection Tool is a relatively new tool in Photoshop that is fast and easy for selecting items.

Quick Selection Tool

After selecting this tool simply paint the area you want to select with the curser.  You can adjust the brush in the menu bar depending on the size and contrast of the object you wish to select.  You can change the diameter, hardness and spacing of the brush and even have the option of changing its angle and roundness.  If you need to change your brush size while making a selection, press the right bracket (]) to increase the size and the left bracket ([) to decrease it.

Quick Selection Menu 

There are three selection options.  The default option is to select a New Selection.  Once you have made an initial selection, the option automatically switches to Add to Selection to increase the selection area.  If you need to deselect a portion of the selected area, choose Subtract from Selection and paint on the area you wish to deselect.

Using Quick Selection

Sample All Layers allows you to select from all layers rather than just the currently selected layer.  Auto-Enhance automatically smoothes out the edges of the selection boundary.

For more control over the edge of your selection, click on the Refine Edge button.  The Refine Edge button allows you to refine your selection and view your selection against a neutral background so you can more clearly see how your selection will look.  Select a portion of your image, and then click on this button.  By default when you choose this, everything outside of your selection will appear white so you can more clearly see what you have selected.  You can then use the sliders to adjust the selection area.  Make sure Preview is checked so you can see the results of your changes. 

 Refine Edge

Radius controls the size of the area inside the selection boundary where the edge refinement occurs.  The higher the number the more contracted from the original selection area.  Contrast sharpens the edges of the selection.  The higher the Contrast number the more defined the edges will be.  Smooth controls irregularities in the selection boundary.  The higher the number, the more smoothed out the selection boundary will be.  Feathering the selection will create a faded transition from the selected area to the area outside the selection.  The higher the number, the larger the feathered area will be up to 250 pixels.  Contract/Expand enlarges or minimizes the selection boundary.  Positive numbers expand and negative numbers contract.  This tool in conjunction with others can help fix problems in your selection boundary.  For example, if some of the background is still visible around the edge of your selection, contract the boundary.  Below the sliders are five options that allow you to adjust how your selection is previewed with descriptions below that describe each option.

Adobe Photoshop Tutorial: The Lasso Tools

There are three lasso selection tools.  The first of these tools is the standard Lasso Tool.  This tool allows you to draw your selection area freehanded.  For more control select the Polygonal or Magnetic Lasso Tools.  The Polygonal Lasso allows you to draw straight lines to create a selection area in any shape.  Hold the Shift key down to draw 45 degree angles and the Alt Key to draw freehanded.  The Magnetic Lasso Tool is one of my favorites.  It works best if you are trying to select an object that contrasts well with its background.  Click on the edge of the object and move your curser around the outside of it.  The magnetic lasso will automatically create anchor points around the outside of the object.  You can manually add anchor points where necessary by clicking on a specific spot.  If your lasso takes the wrong path simply press delete to erase the previous anchor points, then redraw the lasso or manually add anchor points where you want them.

Lasso Tool
Here is a flower cut out with the Lasso Tool.

Polygonal Lasso

Here is a flower cut out with the Polygonal Lasso Tool.

Magnetic Lasso

Here is a flower cut out with the Magnetic Lasso Tool.

The Lasso Tool and Polygonal Lasso Tool have the same options available to them in their menu bars. There are four selection options.  They are New Selection, Add to Selection, Subtract from Selection, and Intersect with Selection.

Selection Options

 The default option is New Selection.  This means that if you draw with the lasso tool on your image, it will draw a new selection area.  If you need to deselect a portion of the selected area, choose Subtract from Selection and draw around the area you want deselected.  Likewise, Add to Selection increases the selected area.  You can also add to your selection by pressing shift while selecting regardless of which option you have active.  Intersect with Selection allows you to draw two areas and the overlapping portion will be the selection area.  You can continue to draw as many overlapping shapes as you would like until you have the correct area selected.

The next option on the menu bar is the Feather option.  Feathering the selection allows you to create faded edges around the selected area.  Say you decide that you would like to feather the selection by 20px and then draw a lasso on the area you want selected.  You will not see any changes to the image you selected.  You will not see the difference feathering makes until you do something with your selection.  If you move your selection or copy and paste your selection you will see the difference feathering makes.  Anti-alias smoothes the edges of the selection.

Feathered Selection

This flower was selected with a 20px feather.

The Refine Edge button allows you to refine your selection and view your selection against a neutral background so you can more clearly see how your selection will look.  Select a portion of your image, and then click on this button.  By default when you choose this, everything outside of your selection will appear white so you can more clearly see what you have selected.  You can then use the sliders to adjust the selection area.  Make sure Preview is checked so you can see the results of your changes. 

Refine Edge

Radius controls the size of the area inside the selection boundary where the edge refinement occurs.  The higher the number the more contracted from the original selection area.  Contrast sharpens the edges of the selection.  The higher the Contrast number the more defined the edges will be.  Smooth controls irregularities in the selection boundary.  The higher the number, the more smoothed out the selection boundary will be.  Feathering the selection will create a faded transition from the selected area to the area outside the selection.  The higher the number, the larger the feathered area will be up to 250 pixels.  Contract/Expand enlarges or minimizes the selection boundary.  Positive numbers expand and negative numbers contract.  This tool in conjunction with others can help fix problems in your selection boundary.  For example, if some of the background is still visible around the edge of your selection, contract the boundary.  Below the sliders are five options that allow you to adjust how your selection is previewed with descriptions below that describe each option.

The Magnetic Lasso Tool has the same options as the other two lasso tools along with some additions.  The first extra option is Width.  This option adjusts the amount of pixels the Magnetic Lasso tool considers for finding contrast. In other words, the Magnetic Lasso will only detect edges within a certain distance of the curser.  It is best to use a large number for areas that contrast greatly, and a low value for tight areas without as much contrast.  If you need to change the width while making a selection press the right bracket (]) to increase the width and the left bracket ([) to decrease it by 1 pixel.

Magnetic Lasso Menu

The contrast value is a percentage between 1 and 100.  This determines the lasso’s sensitivity to the edges.  A higher value only detects edges that contrast greatly from the rest of the image.  A lower value detects edges that do not contrast as much.

The frequency value is a number between 1 and 100 that determines how often points are placed as you move the cursor around the object. A higher number anchors the selection border more quickly.

The pen icon is for Stylus Pressure.  You only need to worry about this option if you are using a Stylus Tablet.

Adobe Photoshop Tutorial: The Marquee Tools

The first selection tool in the Tools Menu is the Marquee Tool.  There are four marquee shapes you can choose from.  To select a portion of an image with this tool click on the image and drag to create the size of the shape you want.  Once you have drawn an area with this tool, you can use the arrow keys on your keyboard to adjust the location of the marquee area before actually making the selection. 

Marquee Tools

To reposition a marquee while you are drawing it, click and drag to start drawing the marquee, keep the mouse button depressed then hold down the spacebar while continuing to drag.  You will see that this repositions the marquee.  Once the marquee is in the correct position, release the spacebar.  You can then continue to drag your mouse to change the size of the marquee.   Remember that you will only actually select objects that are in the layer(s) you currently have selected.

As with every tool in Photoshop, a tool bar for the Marquee Tool will appear at the top.  This tool bar allows for additional options.  Let’s go through this tool bar from left to right.  The first icon on the tool bar shows the marquee shape you have selected.  This is followed by four selection options.  They are New Selection, Add to Selection, Subtract from Selection, and Intersect with Selection. 

Selection Options

The default option is New Selection.  This means that if you have the rectangular marquee selected and click and draw on your image, it will draw a new marquee rectangle selection area.  If you need to deselect a portion of the selected area, choose Subtract from Selection and draw around the area you want deselected.  Likewise, Add to Selection increases the selected area.  You can also add to your selection by pressing shift while selecting regardless of which option you have active.  Intersect with Selection allows you to draw two areas and the overlapping portion will be the selection area.  You can continue to draw as many overlapping shapes as you would like until you have the correct area selected.  Use these tools in conjunction with each other to easily select portions of your image.

The next option of the menu bar is the Feather option.  Feathering the selection allows you to create faded edges around the selected area.  Say you decide that you would like to feather the selection by 20px and then draw the marquee on the area you want selected.  You may see that the shape of the selected area looks different (smaller and rounded corners if you are drawing with the rectangular marquee), but no changes will be made to your image.  You will not see the difference feathering makes until you do something with your selection.  If you move your selection or copy and paste your selection you will see the difference feathering makes.  Anti-alias smoothes the edges of the selection.

Rectangular Marquee
Rectangular Marquee without Feathering

Feathered Marquee
Rectangular Marquee with 20px Feathering

Feathered Image
Selection with 20px Feathering

Moving on to style you will see a dropdown menu.  Normal allows you to draw your marquee freely.  But, say you know that you want your selected area to be an exact size.  If you choose Fixed Size and enter the dimensions you want when you click on your image the correct marquee size will appear.  You can then move the marquee to the correct location on your image. 

Fixed Size

Fixed ratio allows you to draw your marquee at fixed proportions.  For example, you could enter the width as 1 and height as 2.  No matter how large or small you draw the marquee on your image, the height will always be two times the width.  Unlike when working with pixels, with ratios you can use numbers with decimals.  If you click on the two arrows between the height and width it will switch the numbers.

Fixed Ratio

The Refine Edge button allows you to refine your selection and view your selection against a neutral background so you can more clearly see how your selection will look.  Select a portion of your image, and then click on this button.  By default when you choose this, everything outside of your selection will appear white so you can more clearly see what you have selected.  You can then use the sliders to adjust the selection area.  Make sure Preview is checked so you can see the results of your changes. 

 Refine Edge

Radius controls the size of the area inside the selection boundary where the edge refinement occurs.  The higher the number the more contracted from the original selection area.  Contrast sharpens the edges of the selection.  The higher the Contrast number the more defined the edges will be.  Smooth controls irregularities in the selection boundary.  The higher the number, the more smoothed out the selection boundary will be.  Feathering the selection will create a faded transition from the selected area to the area outside the selection.  The higher the number, the larger the feathered area will be up to 250 pixels.  Contract/Expand enlarges or minimizes the selection boundary.  Positive numbers expand and negative numbers contract.  This tool in conjunction with others can help fix problems in your selection boundary.  For example, if some of the background is still visible around the edge of your selection, contract the boundary.  Below the sliders are five options that allow you to adjust how your selection is previewed with descriptions below that describe each option.

Adobe Photoshop Selection Tools

When I look back at when I first started using Photoshop I am amazed how long I used the program before learning how to really use many of the tools.  As someone who jumped into graphic design and taught myself how to use programs like Photoshop, I often did things “the hard way”.  As I become more familiar with Photoshop both exploring on my own and following tutorials, I learn more and more about ways to use tools. 

 

I created this compilation of tutorials about the selection tools to help new Photoshop users (and some long time users who may not fully understand these useful tools) understand how to manipulate these tools to work for them.

 

The selection tools are:

The Marquee Tools

The Lasso Tools

Quick Selection Tool

Magic Wand Tool

The Pen Tools

Extract

 

It is helpful to understand each one of these tools because different selection tools work best for different situations.  Before looking at each specific tutorial, here are a few notes that apply to all selection tools:

 

When making a selection, realize that sometimes it is easiest to select the background around the object you would like to select and then right-click and choose Select Inverse.

 

Most selection tools have a Refine Edge button in their menu bars that allow you to easily adjust the selection border for more advanced selection.

Getting Rid of Joomla! Comment Spammers

I recently downloaded and installed on my Joomla!-based web site (WebsiteTemplateDatabase.com) a Joomla! comment component that allows visitors to my site to make comments on articles I’ve posted.  The component even comes with an image verification code to keep automated spider spammers from going through my site and leaving their annoying trail of links to suspicious websites.  However, precautions be danged, the spammers still came.  Soon after I installed the comment component, I found that spam comments, presumably entered manually, were showing up on many of my site’s articles.

When I checked into how these spammers were finding me, I noticed that they were using Google searches for terminology used in the comments section.  Most specifically, they were searching for the term “powered by !joomlacomment“, which is found at the bottom of each articles where the component shows up.

To remedy the situation, I performed a Linux search from the components/com_comment/ directory for the file containing “Powered by !joomlacomment” by executing this Linux file search command:  find . | xargs grep ‘Poweredsl”.  The result showed me that the guilty section of code was in the insertPoweredBy() function located in the components/com_comment/joscomment/comment.class.php file.  I removed changed the return statement in that function to simply “return ‘’;  That should make it so that those irritating spammers won’t be able to find me so easily.  I may end up having to change other wording or the layout of the comment section to keep them away from my site.

In addition to making it more difficult for spammers to find my site, I also set the Autopublish comments setting to No.  That setting is located under the Security tab of the !Joomlacontent ->Content Settings page.  With that setting in place, at least the spammer comments won’t show up on my site automatically.

I hope this article is helpful for any of you who might need a little extra help staying ahead of that group of society intent on wrecking havoc on the Internet world.

picknewtemplate

Changing the Look of Your Blogger Site Using Templates

Changing the Look of Your Blogger Site Using Templates

When you set up a new Blogger site, you can select from among sixteen default different templates, the majority of which have more than one theme variation you can select.  When I first started blogging, I often tried two or three of the default templates before I settled on one that fit the theme of my site okay.  You can use one of the following methods to change your existing template.

Picking a New Blogger Default Template
After you set up your blog, you may decide that you don’t like the template so much, or you might just want to give it a fresh look.  There are a couple of ways you can change your template.  The easiest way is to simply switch to one of the other default templates provided by Blogger.  You can switch templates by going to Layout -> Pick New Template from your Blogger account dashboard.  You can pick a new template as simply as you selected your initial one.  All the information (posts, pictures, and videos) you have already placed on your blog will be retained.  Blogger’s system separates the actual information (your posts and media) presented on a blog from the way in which the information is presented – your blog’s theme.

When you change your template by choosing Pick New Template, Blogger’s system is intelligent enough to preserve the gadgets you currently have set up.  For instance, if you have added some gadgets using the Add a Gadget link on the Layout -> Page Elements page, those gadgets will be preserved in your new template design.  I’ll discuss later a method for changing your template design that requires more caution.

Editing Your Template’s XML Code
Another way that you can customize your template is by editing the blog’s template file.  You can access the template file by going to Layout -> Edit HTML.  Blogger would probably be more accurate naming the link “Edit XML”, since that’s what you’re actually editing.  What you’ll find in the template file are some variable definitions, some CSS style definitions, and finally the body of the blog page, which contains a bunch of XML tags that look something like this: 

<b:section class=’main’ id=’main’ showaddelement=’yes’>
<b:widget id=’Header1′ locked=’false’ title=’Blogger Template Tester (Header)’ type=’Header’/>
<b:widget id=’Blog1′ locked=’true’ title=’Blog Posts’ type=’Blog’/>
</b:section>

In order to effectively edit your template beyond simply changing fonts and colors in the variable definition section, you’ll need to know (or be willing to learn) some things about CSS and the Blogger XML schema.  It will likely take some studying of the existing XML setup and some experimenting to make the improvements you’re looking for.  As you make changes, you might want to keep a backup copy of your last working template so you don’t have to go back to work from the original template file if you mess something up.

Installing a Third-party Blogger Template
The third way to change your blog’s theme is to download and install a Blogger template created by a designer.  There are many free Blogger templates available for download all over the Internet.  WebsiteTemplateDatabase.com provides a variety from which you can choose.  With such a wide selection of free Blogger templates available, you should be able to find something that matches your style and the content of your blog.

To install a third-party Blogger template, save the template XML file to your computer.  Then, from the Layout -> Edit HTML page, click Browse…, and find the template file on your computer.  Then click Open to return to the Edit HTML page.  Click Upload to upload the new template.

Something to keep in mind if you are using a third-party blog template is that if you have added gadgets to your blog (e.g. Followers, Poll, Labels, etc.), you need to be careful when using a third-party template to avoid removing those gadgets.  If you download and install a template that doesn’t support your custom gadgets, they will be deleted when the new template is saved. 

If your new template does have gadget discrepancies, you will receive the following message when you click the Upload button.

Widgets are about to be deleted

Please confirm that the following widgets should be deleted. All the widgets’ configuration data will be lost.

 

The warning message will then list those gadgets that will be deleted if you proceed with uploading the new template.  To avoid losing your existing gadgets, you’ll need to find the XML tags that represent those gadgets in your current template, and merge those tags into the template you want to upload.  Doing so may be a little tricky.  You might be able to get some help from the original template designer.

 

Each of these three methods of changing your existing themes has advantages and disadvantages.  Hopefully this article has helped you understand the issues involved so you can make an informed decision.  Happy blogging!

bloggeruploadimage

How to Use Blogger.com as an Image Host

Most users of Blogger.com think of it as simply a blogging platform.  However, it can also be used to host images that can be referenced from anywhere on the Internet.  Here’s how it works.

When you create a new blog post on your Blogger account, you have access to a menu from which you can upload images.  Since picture illustrations are important parts of blogs, most bloggers have used this feature.  You have a pretty good amount of freedom in adding images to your blog.  With your Google account, which your Blogger account shares, you have access to up to 1 GB of picture storage.

If you want to use your Blogger account as an image host, create a new blog post and upload the image(s) that you want to host on the Blogger server.   If you don’t want to actually publish the post (you probably won’t if you’re simply using the post as a way to upload images), you can choose to save it as a draft instead.  The fact that Blogger doesn’t provide an option for uploading images outside of creating a blog post indicates that Blogger’s intent isn’t to have its system used as an image host.  However, there are some advantages to using Blogger’s setup for hosting images as compared to some of the other free image hosting services.  The main advantage, especially for those whose images will be viewed excessively, is that there is no bandwidth limitation.

Accessing Your Image

After you have uploaded an image through a blog post, you can access it by right-clicking the image and choosing copy link location.  If you then visit the copied link location url into another browser window, you can see where the image is stored. 

To access the direct URL of your stored image that you’ll need to use for hotlinking, you need to right-click on the image from the previous step (Copy Link Location) and select  Copy Image Location.  You’ll notice that there is a slight difference between the two.  The first step produced a url similar to this:  http://4.bp.blogspot.com/_lrZgwwEYjhk/SoCUsz9-WNI/AAAAAAAAADI/ec0DnmwowMg/s1600-h/blogger-edithtml.jpg

The Copy Image Location step you performed afterward creates a URL that removes the –h part of the s1600-h directory to create this:  http://4.bp.blogspot.com/_lrZgwwEYjhk/SoCUsz9-WNI/AAAAAAAAADI/ec0DnmwowMg/s1600/blogger-edithtml.jpg.

Now that you have a URL that shows the exact location of your image, you can reference that URL wherever you want to use the image.

Adobe Photoshop CS3 Default Keyboard Shortcuts

Adobe® Photoshop® CS3 Keyboard Shortcuts

The following keyboard shortcuts are the defaults for Adobe Photoshop CS3 for Microsoft Windows XP.  For Mac users, substitute the Command key for Ctrl and the Option key for Alt.  This list was obtained by going to Edit->Keyboard Shortcuts, and then clicking on the Summarize… button to save the shortcuts in an html file.  Adobe automatically generated shortcut summary file includes all available commands, including those that don’t have shortcuts by default.  All commands that don’t have have shortcuts have been removed from this list.  Adobe also provides a list of the default keyboard shortcuts from the Help menu.

 

Application Menus

Command Shortcut
 
File
  New… Ctrl+N
  Open… Ctrl+O
  Browse… Alt+Ctrl+O
Shift+Ctrl+O
  Open As… Alt+Shift+Ctrl+O
  Close Ctrl+W
  Close All Alt+Ctrl+W
  Close and Go To Bridge… Shift+Ctrl+W
  Save Ctrl+S
  Save As… Shift+Ctrl+S
Alt+Ctrl+S
  Save for Web & Devices… Alt+Shift+Ctrl+S
  File Info… Alt+Shift+Ctrl+I
  Page Setup… Shift+Ctrl+P
  Print… Ctrl+P
  Print One Copy Alt+Shift+Ctrl+P
  Exit Ctrl+Q
Edit
  Undo/Redo Ctrl+Z
  Step Forward Shift+Ctrl+Z
  Step Backward Alt+Ctrl+Z
  Fade… Shift+Ctrl+F
  Cut Ctrl+X
F2
  Copy Ctrl+C
F3
  Copy Merged Shift+Ctrl+C
  Paste Ctrl+V
F4
  Paste Into Shift+Ctrl+V
  Fill… Shift+F5
  Free Transform Ctrl+T
  Transform>
    Again Shift+Ctrl+T
  Color Settings… Shift+Ctrl+K
  Keyboard Shortcuts… Alt+Shift+Ctrl+K
  Menus… Alt+Shift+Ctrl+M
  Preferences>
    General… Ctrl+K
Image
  Adjustments>
    Levels… Ctrl+L
    Auto Levels Shift+Ctrl+L
    Auto Contrast Alt+Shift+Ctrl+L
    Auto Color Shift+Ctrl+B
    Curves… Ctrl+M
    Color Balance… Ctrl+B
    Black & White… Alt+Shift+Ctrl+B
    Hue/Saturation… Ctrl+U
    Desaturate Shift+Ctrl+U
    Invert Ctrl+I
  Image Size… Alt+Ctrl+I
  Canvas Size… Alt+Ctrl+C
Layer
  New>
    Layer… Shift+Ctrl+N
    Layer via Copy Ctrl+J
    Layer via Cut Shift+Ctrl+J
  Create/Release Clipping Mask Alt+Ctrl+G
  Group Layers Ctrl+G
  Ungroup Layers Shift+Ctrl+G
  Arrange>
    Bring to Front Shift+Ctrl+]
    Bring Forward Ctrl+]
    Send Backward Ctrl+[
    Send to Back Shift+Ctrl+[
  Merge Layers Ctrl+E
  Merge Visible Shift+Ctrl+E
Select
  All Ctrl+A
  Deselect Ctrl+D
  Reselect Shift+Ctrl+D
  Inverse Shift+Ctrl+I
Shift+F7
  All Layers Alt+Ctrl+A
  Refine Edge… Alt+Ctrl+R
  Modify>
    Feather… Alt+Ctrl+D
Shift+F6
Filter
  Last Filter Ctrl+F
  Extract… Alt+Ctrl+X
  Filter Gallery…
  Liquify… Shift+Ctrl+X
  Pattern Maker… Alt+Shift+Ctrl+X
  Vanishing Point… Alt+Ctrl+V
Analysis
  Record Measurements Shift+Ctrl+M
View
  Proof Colors Ctrl+Y
  Gamut Warning Shift+Ctrl+Y
  Zoom In Ctrl++
Ctrl+=
  Zoom Out Ctrl+-
  Fit on Screen Ctrl+0
  Actual Pixels Alt+Ctrl+0
  Extras Ctrl+H
  Show>
    Target Path Shift+Ctrl+H
    Grid Ctrl+’
    Guides Ctrl+;
  Rulers Ctrl+R
  Snap Shift+Ctrl+;
  Lock Guides Alt+Ctrl+;
Window
  Actions Alt+F9
F9
  Brushes F5
  Color F6
  Info F8
  Layers F7
Help
  Photoshop Help F1

 

Palette Menus

Command Shortcut
 
History
  Step Forward Shift+Ctrl+Z
  Step Backward Alt+Ctrl+Z
Layers
  New Layer… Shift+Ctrl+N
  Create/Release Clipping Mask Alt+Ctrl+G
  Merge Layers Ctrl+E
  Merge Visible Shift+Ctrl+E
Measurement Log
  Record Measurements Shift+Ctrl+M

 

Tools

  Tools   Shortcut
  Move Tool   V
  Rectangular Marquee Tool   M
  Elliptical Marquee Tool   M
  Lasso Tool   L
  Polygonal Lasso Tool   L
  Magnetic Lasso Tool   L
  Quick Selection Tool   W
  Magic Wand Tool   W
  Crop Tool   C
  Slice Tool   K
  Slice Select Tool   K
  Spot Healing Brush Tool   J
  Healing Brush Tool   J
  Patch Tool   J
  Red Eye Tool   J
  Brush Tool   B
  Pencil Tool   B
  Color Replacement Tool   B
  Clone Stamp Tool   S
  Pattern Stamp Tool   S
  History Brush Tool   Y
  Art History Brush Tool   Y
  Eraser Tool   E
  Background Eraser Tool   E
  Magic Eraser Tool   E
  Gradient Tool   G
  Paint Bucket Tool   G
  Blur Tool   R
  Sharpen Tool   R
  Smudge Tool   R
  Dodge Tool   O
  Burn Tool   O
  Sponge Tool   O
  Pen Tool   P
  Freeform Pen Tool   P
  Horizontal Type Tool   T
  Vertical Type Tool   T
  Horizontal Type Mask Tool   T
  Vertical Type Mask Tool   T
  Path Selection Tool   A
  Direct Selection Tool   A
  Rectangle Tool   U
  Rounded Rectangle Tool   U
  Ellipse Tool   U
  Polygon Tool   U
  Line Tool   U
  Custom Shape Tool   U
  Notes Tool   N
  Audio Annotation Tool   N
  Eyedropper Tool   I
  Color Sampler Tool   I
  Ruler Tool   I
  Count Tool   I
  Hand Tool   H
  Zoom Tool   Z
  Default Foreground/Background Colors   D
  Switch Foreground/Background Colors   X
  Toggle Standard/Quick Mask Modes   Q
  Toggle Screen Modes   F
  Toggle Preserve Transparency   /
  Decrease Brush Size   [
  Increase Brush Size   ]
  Decrease Brush Hardness   {
  Increase Brush Hardness   }
  Previous Brush   ,
  Next Brush   .
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